Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of gutkha

A Mexican study conducted in indicated that single-cell gel electrophoresis is a safe method of determining DNA damage in human populations [ 57 ].

Gutka and Tambaku paan use among South Asian immigrants: The use of gutkha has been shown to have genotoxic and clastogenic properties [ 1 ]. The active metabolites interact with DNA to cause DNA damage, mutation induction, and cancer development in liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes.

Photomicrograph of nuclei showing FISH performed on buccal epithelial cells using human centromeric probes A-showing signal within the nucleus; B-showing signal within the nucleus but not in micronucleus.

MN is a microscopically visible round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass in the extra nuclear vicinity. The animals were allowed to acclimatize for at least 2 weeks prior to hepatocyte isolation.

The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine, a major carcinogen, and micronuclei, which are an indicator of genotoxicity. In India, mostly children and teenagers chew gutkha occasionally or regularly.

Arecaidine, arecoline, and other similar ingredients of betel quid exist in minute quantities in human blood, and arecoline levels have been associated with the use of betel quid [ 67 ].

The DNA released from the lysed cell is electrophoresed in an agarose gel under neutral pH conditions. The consumption of smokeless tobacco and areca nut is high in South Asian countries in the form of paan.

Widespread use of these and other products by children, as well as adolescents, is mostly due to their pleasant taste, low cost, and easy availability.

We have summarized the effects of CYPs, which are connected with the chewing of betel quid and lead to cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, in Figure 4 [ 9091 ]. So the effects of these drugs are not limited to just DNA damage.

The usage of these products is becoming well known in these communities. Asignificantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells are found among gutkha users.

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Studies have reported that areca nut leads to diminished hunger, enhanced digestion, altered concentration, and relaxation, and sometimes also increases alertness [ 2 ]. Oral submucous fibrosis OSMF is a persistent disorder of the oral cavity characterized by irritation and progressive fibrosis of the superficial and deep connective tissues.

Gutkha is a cheap and convenient betel quid substitute, which is popular among all age groups. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the population at high risk due to using these products at high doses on a daily basis. Twenty well-spread second division metaphases were analysed for SCE. Individuals tend to be more aware of smoking, but not attentive to other habits that pose a risk of oral cancer, such as paan and gutkha.

According to a report inthe general use of paan, chaalia, gutkha, naswar, and toombak was determined to be The consumers of smokeless tobacco were mostly elder women [ 44 ]. The CP mixture obtained from a 0. The SCEs are reported per chromosome.

Value of Micronuclei Count as a Predictor of Cytotoxic Damage in Smoked and Smokeless Tobacco Users

Saliva has the potential to inhibit the production of these ROS and other free radicals from the constituents of betel quid.

Micronuclei MN are small nuclei present in cells as a result of chromosome loss or breakage caused by various genotoxic carcinogens 3. The number of aberrations is given per diploid cell, i. To further analyze the site of lesion, it was observed that polymerase stopped at the site and adenine was inappropriately incorporated into the DNA sequence opposite of the 8-oxo-G base.

Regions sensitive to breakage, called fragile sitesmay result from genotoxic agents such as pesticides. They were kept in a temperature and humidity controlled room with a 12 h light—dark cycle.

It seems that there is an association between oral inflammatory conditions and the age of individuals who use smokeless tobacco products [ 95 ].

Micronucleus investigation in human buccal epithelial cells of gutkha users

They may be used as a quantifiable estimate of the extent of recent DNA injury. Oral cancer is the sixth most predominant type of cancer worldwide, affecting both genders equally, although it is particularly common in men in developing countries [ 6 ].

Abstract Smokeless tobacco consumption, which is widespread throughout the world, leads to oral submucous fibrosis OSMFwhich is a long-lasting and devastating condition of the oral cavity with the potential for malignancy.

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A 3 h treatment with CP induced statistically significant levels of micronuclei at concentrations of 0. In Pakistan and India, oral cancer is the most common type of cancer, after breast and lung cancer.

The continuous chewing of paan and swallowing of gutkha trigger progressive fibrosis in submucosal tissue. For chromosome preparations cells were harvested by replacing the medium with 2 ml of collagenase solution 0.Essay on Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Gutkha Using Allium Cepa Assay Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Gutkha using Allium cepa Assay EKTA BHATTACHARYA Roll BGC/BOT No. Semester IV Examination Under the supervision of Dr. Shyamal Kr. Brazilian Dental Journal (10). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the genotoxic effects of chloroform and eucalyptol in mouse lymphoma cells by the single cell gel (comet) assay.

To monitor cytotoxic effects, Trypan blue exclusion test was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS. In vivo assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of maná-cubiu Rats did not exhibit cytotoxic or genotoxic effects after maná-cubiu treatments. The current investigation evaluated the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of maná-cubiu by the comet assay and the micronucleus test.

Since β-carotene induced neither significant cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects at concentrations ranging from up to 10 µM, these observations indicate that most likely β-carotene breakdown products are responsible for the occurrence of carcinogenic effects found in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study and.

The genotoxic effects of gutkha and pan masala are most likely due to the tobacco and areca nut specific nitrosamines.


For the evaluation of the genotoxic effects of various compounds using the MN assay, Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of areca nut-related compounds.

Micronuclei (MN) count is a promising indicator for the cytotoxic effects of tobacco usage. Our study was aimed at establishing a correlation between the MN counts among various tobacco habits. Methods: Exfoliated cells were collected from a total of individuals consisting of individuals each of smokers, gutkha chewers, khaini chewers.

Arecanut as an emerging etiology of oral cancers in India Download
Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of gutkha
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